Two years later, the king sided with General Miguel Primo de Rivera’s (1870–1930) dictatorship, dealing a death blow to the monarchy in Spain. Both sons with hemophilia died without having children. Why is the Republic of South Africa referred to as a Rainbow Nation? The most Alfonso families were found in the USA in 1920. In 1911, after a visit to Melilla, a Spanish city in Africa, the king was dubbed the epithet “The African.” Alfonso was always close to the army fighting in Morocco, making clear his support for this part of the army in crisis between civil and military powers. Alfonso XIII of Spain, called "the African", was king of Spain from his birth until the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic on 14 April 1931. Despite Spanish neutrality in August 1914, the royal family was distressed by the European war because of each family member's background. This prompted his mother, María Cristina, Queen, consort of Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1858-1929) to resign the regency in 1902. is licensed under: CC by-NC-ND 3.0 Germany - Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivative Works. The morbidity pattern (affecting mostly young and healthy persons), together with the rapid disease progression to fatal multiorgan failure and death, were distinct features of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic [3–6]. Restoration Regime; Spanish neutrality; Pacifism; Humanitarianism; War prisoners, King Alfonso XIII, El Africano [the African], El rey regeneracionista; The Regenerator, A Young King: The Expectations for Spanish Regeneration, María Cristina, Queen, consort of Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1858-1929), Victoria Eugenia, Queen, consort of Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1887–1969), Victoria, Queen of Great Britain (1837–1901). During the First World War he established a humanitarian office for prisoners and civilian relief at the Royal Palace in Madrid. The estimated number of deaths related to the infection worldwide ranged from 20 to >50 million [1–3]. King Alfonso XIII of Spain. 1 (1) Hemophilia is a rare blood condition where people do not have the clotting factor which enables their blood to clot when bleeding. He intervened directly in the Moroccan War in 1921 with such disastrous effect that a subsequent commission of inquiry placed the blame squarely on him for the defeat at Annual (Anwal). An office dealing with prisoners-of-war and missing personnel was established at the Royal Palace in Madrid. von Spanien geboren. The supporters of the Count of Molina as king of Spain rose to h… In cooperation with the French, he restored order to north Africa and began extensive infrastructure upgrades in Spain. In his establishing the state religion, Alfonso called for the burning of any non-Christian idols or objects related to magic and sorcery, erasing significant aspects of the Congolese cultural heritage. After the Spanish-American War of 1898, which had ended Spain's colonial empire, the young king represented the clearest example of a new generation that could change the face of the nation. Februar 1941 in Rom; vollständiger Name Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Austria-Lorena) war von 1886/1902 bis 1931 König von Spanien. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Alfonso never returned to Spain. He died on February 28th, 1941. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He tended to speak ill of the British to the French and vice versa, doing the same with the Italians and Austrians. The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Alfonso was born in Madrid as the eldest son of Queen Isabella II. (spanisch Alfonso XIII, * 17. The posthumous son of Alfonso XII, he grew up alongside two elder sisters under the regency of their mother, María Cristina. Alfonso’s popularity also suffered, and the notorious attempt on his life and that of his bride, Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg, on their wedding day (May 31, 1906) was followed by a constant succession of plots to assassinate him. Because his father died before he was born he was considered King of Spain from the moment he was born. For most teams in Spain, they just have their name be like this, and nothing changes. Author: Evan Andrews. In 1906, Alfonso married Princess Victoria Eugénie of Battenberg, granddaughter of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. Mai 1886 in Madrid; 28. wurde 1857 in Madrid als viertes von neun Kindern der Königin Isabella II. General Francisco Franco reinstated him as a Spanish citizen and restored his property (confiscated in 1932), but he eventually abdicated his rights to his third son, Don Juan. He was the posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. He reacted early against the boredom of court life and began his lifelong attachment to the Spanish army. In 1902, on attaining his 16th year, the King assumed control of the state. His great personal courage in the face of these attacks, however, won him considerable admiration. His mother was the former Queen of Spain and his father was the deceased King Alfonso XII. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfons XIII. Alfonso XIII of Spain 1902-1931 Called "the African» 1 (Madrid, May 17, 1886-Rome, February 28, 1941), was king of Spain from birth until the proclamation of the Second Republic on April 14, 1931. Updates? Als sein Vater gilt offiziell deren Ehemann und Cousin Francisco de Asís de Borbón. Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1886-1941), who was bor… Alfonso XII, (born November 28, 1857, Madrid, Spain—died November 25, 1885, Madrid), Spanish king whose short reign (1874–85) gave rise to hopes for a stable constitutional monarchy in Spain.. Florida had the highest population of Alfonso families in 1880. King Alfonso was a brave and clever man who was very well liked by those who knew him, but he was not a good ruler. The Restaurationist constitution of 1876 was expected to bring endemic antagonism between military and civilian powers to an end. The impact of military defeat in Morocco, and the post-World War I Depression, put pressure on the King, and after 12 unsuccessful governments during the period 1918–23 Alfonso did not resist the coup of General Primo de Rivera. 5. Alfonso XIII, 1886–1941, king of Spain (1886–1931), posthumous son and successor of Alfonso XII. His remains were later returned to Spain in 1980 after his grandson, Juan Carlos, became King of Spain after the death of General Franco. He set up a military junta, called the Directory, and when government ministers complained to the King, Alfonso dismissed them. The impact of military defeat in Morocco, and the post-World War I Depression, put pressure on the King, and after 12 unsuccessful governments during the period 1918–23 Alfonso did not resist the coup of General Primo de Rivera. Carolina García Sanz, Escuela Española de Historia y Arqueología en Roma. 1902 - Alfonso XIII assumed control of the government. King Alfonso XIII of Spain (husband of Victoria’s granddaughter, Victoria Eugenie) The war saw Germany (along with Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire) square off against a coalition of allies including the United Kingdom, Romania and Russia. Although he enjoyed some personal popularity, the monarchy was threatened by social unrest, and went into exile, without abdicating, on April 14, 1931. Alfonso XIII, King of Spain By Carolina García Sanz De Borbón, Alfonso (King Alfonso XIII, El Africano [the African], El rey regeneracionista, The Regenerator) King of Spain Born 17 March 1886 in Madrid, Spain Died 28 February 1941 in Rome, Italy Alfonso XIII was a controversial Spanish king during the first decades of the 20th century. Officially, his father was her husband, King Francis. His mother abdicated in his favour in 1870, and he returned to Spain as king in 1874 following a military coup against the First Republic. The posthumous son of Alfonso XII, Alfonso XIII was immediately proclaimed king under the regency of his mother, María Cristina. King Alfonso XIII (1885– 1931) was not a modernizer. Her wife, María Cristina, was pregnant when he died, so the next king would be Alfonso XIII. He assumed effective power at the age of sixteen on 17 May 1902. Alfonso’s position worsened after the failure of the government of Antonio Maura (1909); the last hope for the parliamentary regime seemed extinguished. Alfonso xiii and the second republic 1. Although lively and After the failure of the First Spanish Republic in 1873, a conservative seizure of power led to the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy with the ascendance of Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1857–1885)to the throne. He was born Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena, the son of the late King Alfonso XII of Spain and Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria. Click here to subscribe to the Hemophilia News Today Newsletter! Alfonso XIII was royalty. Reinado constitucional de Alfonso XIII The dictator established martial law and began cracking down on the regional separatists. Disagreements between the monarch and prime ministers resulted in the “Oriental Crisis” that referred to changes of governments originating from the Royal Palace (Palacio de Oriente). As a result of the war, Alfonso XIII acquired the nickname “Alfonso the African.” Perhaps the biggest miscue of Alfonzo’s reign was hitching his wagon to the likes of dictatorial Prime Minister Miguel Primo de Rivera (In office 1923-1930). Alfonso XIII grew up to be a soldier and was fond of wearing the captain general uniform in public. His mother, Maria Cristina of Hapsburg, served as regent during Alfonso's minority. Currently, there is consensus surrounding the name given to the pandemic. 1886-1931 - Alfonso XIII was proclaimed King of Spain. Due to King Alfonso's whims and the absence of parliamentary majorities in the pre-World War I period, the monarchy was actively involved in ministerial instability. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. Overall, Alfonso XIII tended to present himself as a pacifist and humanitarian king. Alfonso XIII, Spanish king (1902–31) who by authorizing a military dictatorship hastened his own deposition by advocates of the Second Republic. The victors demanded the king’s abdication; when the army withdrew its support from Alfonso, he was forced to leave Spain (April 14, 1931), though he refused to abdicate the throne. When Primo de Rivera fell from power in January 1930, a temporary government under General Dámaso Berenguer was called on to save the king. 5. African colonial slumps of the year 1921 gave the signal for the start of a general offensive against the throne, and the army, respectively represented by King Alfonso XIII and the general Primo de Rivera. Popularity: Alfonso Herrera Alfonso Herrera is an actor. The story of Ratoncito Pérez has been adapted into further literary works and movies since then, with the character of Alfonso XIII appearing in some. His mother, Queen Maria Christina, was appointed regent during his minority. These rumours were used as political propaganda against Alfonso by the Carlists. Alfonso XIII appears as "King Buby" in Luis Coloma's story of Ratoncito Pérez (1894), which was written for the King when he was 8 years old. Additionally, King Alfonso XIII of Spain also fell gravely ill with the virus, heightening press coverage in the country and grabbing headlines elsewhere. Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1886-1941), who was born after his father's premature death, attained majority status at the age of sixteen. Alfonso tried various methods to bring about a return to a constitutional regime without the risk of elections. Alfons XII. Why did Alfonso XIII get expelled Because he permitted the dictator Primo de Rivera to dictate Spain from 1923-1930 and because he acted bad in the Marruecos Guerra When was the 2nd republic of … He grew up in and around Spain with his mother (she was an Austrian Princess) and his two sisters. Diplomatically, Alfonso exhibited contradictory behavior as military operations evolved and depending on the belligerent representative to whom he was speaking. He was the first of the Portuguese Kings to rule in the Kongo. King Alfonso XIII, however, would not live to see any of that as he died in Rome not long after his abdication a month later on February 28, 1941. During his reign Spain lost its last colonies in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines, lost several wars in Africa and after keeping Spain out of World War I, Alfonso supported the military dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1923. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year.Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. In 1923, imposed by Primo de Rivera dictatorship ended final canovista system. Period: 1902 to 1923. Although lively and intelligent, he was raised in an ultraclerical and reactionary atmosphere by his doting mother. Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. 1886 - Alfonso XIII was born on the 17th of May. He continued the system of alternating conservative and liberal governments (based on continued elections), but he increasingly intervened in politics in order to rotate governments. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. He was most prominent from 1886 to 1886. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. This was about 45% of all the recorded Alfonso's in the USA. The Alfonso family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1880 and 1920. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. She was very anxious to build up his physical strength, and he was encouraged to spend much time swimming, sailing, and riding. In Social Clips. Why Was It Called the 'Spanish Flu?' Some auth… Why Hemophilia Is Called ‘A Royal Disease’ May 24, 2017. by Wendy Henderson. Discover Alfonso XII: La vida del El Pacificador [Alfonso XII: The Life of the Peacemaker] as it's meant to be heard, narrated by uncredited. By directly associating himself with the overthrow of the parliamentary regime, however, and linking his fortunes to the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, Alfonso jeopardized the existence of the Spanish monarchy. News of the sickness first made headlines in Madrid in late-May 1918, and coverage only increased after the Spanish King Alfonso XIII came down with a nasty case a week later. He left a legacy as the king who worked to spread Catholicism throughout […] The new system entailed a commitment between the monarch and two political parties (Conservatives and Liberals). The queen mother was born an Archduchess of Austria; Alfonso’s wife, Victoria Eugenia, Queen, consort of Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1887–1969), was a granddaughter of Victoria, Queen of Great Britain (1837–1901). After Spanish unrest in the summer of 1917, including military insubordination (Juntas Nacionales de Defensa), political challenge to the system (Asamblea de Parlamentarios in Barcelona), and the revolutionary general strike, Alfonso XIII was considered to be more sympathetic to the German position. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) reigned as King of Spain. 3. King Alfonso XIII (1885– 1931) was not a modernizer. After a revolution that deposed his mother Isabella II from the throne in 1868, Alfonso studied in Austria and France. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso XIII was born in 1886, one year after his father's death. Omissions? The 1918 influenza pandemic did not, as many people believed, originate in Spain. Why Hemophilia Is Called ‘A Royal Disease’ ... Victoria Eugenie, took the disease to Spain when she married King Alfonso XIII. After the failure of the First Spanish Republic in 1873, a conservative seizure of power led to the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy with the ascendance of Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1857–1885) to the throne. Alfonso XIII, (born May 17, 1886, Madrid, Spain—died February 28, 1941, Rome, Italy), Spanish king (1902–31) who by authorizing a military dictatorship hastened his own deposition by advocates of the Second Republic. Alfonso XIII was a controversial Spanish king during the first decades of the 20th century. King Alfonso XIII was born on May 17, 1886. Although his conduct during World War I was irreproachable (he observed a scrupulous neutrality and rendered great service to humanitarian causes), in the postwar period he began to move toward a system of more personal rule, even seeking a means to rid himself of the legislature. Corrections? His mother's accession created the second cause of instability, which was the Carlist Wars. Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. November 28 marks the birth anniversary in 1857 of Prince Alfonso de Borbón y Borbón who, in December 1874, would become King Alfonso XII. They just don’t make them this way anymore… Built by King Alfonso XIII for the royals and VIPs attending Seville’s 1929 world fair, the Hotel Alfonso XIII is … Real Madrid had two major names in their history: First they were Madrid CF (Madrid Club de Fútbol). The posthumous son of Alfonso XII, Alfonso XIII was immediately proclaimed king under the regency of his mother, María Cristina. The office provided relief to more than 200,000 prisoners-of-war and evacuated nearly 70,000 civilians from unsafe zones. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Alfonso was born in Madrid on May 17, 1886, 6 months after the death of his father, King Alfonso XII. She was very anxious to build up his physical strength, and he was encouraged to spend much time swimming, sailing, and riding. A week before the report was to be published, however, Alfonso was rescued from a humiliating situation by a coup d’état (September 13, 1923) led by General Miguel Primo de Rivera. Alfonso was born in Madrid on May 17, 1886, 6 months after the death of his father, King Alfonso XII. In 1880 there were 21 Alfonso families living in Florida. ALFONSO XIII AND THE SECOND REPUBLIC 2. Alfonso was born as the child of Alfonso XII of Spain and Maria Christina of Austria on May 17th, 1886 in Madrid. The Restaurationist constitution of 1876 was expected to bring endemic antagonism between military and civilian powers to an end. He was called "the Peacemaker"–as you can … After helping a French washerwoman find her husband, who was missing in action, in 1914, thousands of letters were sent asking for the Spanish king’s intervention in personal affairs. Alfonso's biological paternity is uncertain: there is speculation that his biological father may have been Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans (a captain of the guard). Although the Restoration regime wanted the army’s role and involvement in politics to decrease, the monarch took his position as commander-in-chief of the Spanish army seriously. by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2014-10-08. The result was political instability; 33 governments were formed in Spain between 1902 and 1923, and the parliamentary system was steadily discredited. He grew up during a period in which the Spanish people had become tired of kings and wanted to have a republic. This office, in coordination with the Red Cross, consisted of several sections: missing-in-action soldiers; communications with occupied territories; war prisoners; repatriation of injured soldiers and civilians; internments in Switzerland; commutations; funding assistance for isolated people; and inspections carried out by Spanish delegates in Berlin, Vienna, and Rome. Tusell, Javier / Queipo de Llano, Genoveva García: Victoria Eugenia, Queen, consort of Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1887-1969), Victoria, Queen of Great Britain (1837-1901). Although moves were made to nominate King Alfonso for the Nobel Peace Prize, they were never successful. Hence, Alfonso considered himself to be the long-awaited “regenerator” who would allow Spain to enter prosperous times and recover its prestige abroad. In August 1914 he had already proposed a Spanish-Italian joint arbitration, which he hoped would result in a Latin-sponsored peace agreement. Forty members of the royal staff, as well as volunteers, worked together with Spanish diplomats all around Europe for prisoners’ relief. 1909 - Alfonso XIII was condemned for ordering the execution of the radical leader in Barcelona. So he was a … Alfonso XIII of Spain, also known as El Africano, was the King of Spain from his birth in 1886 until the establishment of the Second Republic in 1931. A member of the Bourbon Dynasty, ruled as king of Spain from 1886 until 1931.. Alfonso XIII was born king; his father, Alfonso XII (r. 1875–1885), died six months before his birth. He left a legacy as the king who worked to spread Catholicism throughout the Kongo, abandoning the rituals and customs that were practices in the land. Additionally, King Alfonso XIII of Spain also fell gravely ill with the virus, heightening press coverage in the country and grabbing headlines elsewhere. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He was most active from 2001 to 2001. King Alfonso I, also referred to as “the Apostle of the Kongo,” served as King of the Kongo in Africa from the early part of the 1500’s through 1542. Official Alfonso XIII biographies argue that several blunders committed by the king during his reign were offset by his humanitarian work during the First World War; this was also a point made by the royalist propaganda in the Second Spanish Republic. Built by King Alfonso XIII for the royals and VIPs attending Seville’s 1929 world fair, the Hotel Alfonso XIII is -literally- built for royalty. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Meanwhile, the king aspired to take the lead in organizing an international peace conference in Madrid. It’s an inherited disease that’s usually passed from mother to son. The couple went on to have five children: one daughter (a carrier whose children did not inherit the disease) and four sons, two of whom had hemophilia. Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931. Alfonso’s reputation was tarnished after the Disaster of Annual in July 1921, when the Berber leader Abd el-Krim (1882–1963) defeated the Spanish Army. ALFONSO XIII (1886–1941) BIBLIOGRAPHY. His mother, Maria Cristina of Hapsburg, served as regent during Alfonso's minority. Alfonso was monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year.Alfonso's mother, Maria Christina of Austria, served as regent until he assumed full powers on his sixteenth birthday in 1902. Alfonso XIII's mother, Queen María Christina of Habsburg-Lorraine (1858–1929), ruled as regent until he reached his sixteenth birthday. In his public speeches, especially in the state opening of parliament, Alfonso XIII always emphasized Spanish neutrality and his commitment to peace, but in fact he was torn by conflicting opinions about the parties involved. 1906 - Alfonso XIII married Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg on the 31st May. One remarkable thing about Alfonso XIII is that he became king the minute he was born, which was in the year 1886, because his father had died before he was born. Alfonso XII, also known as El Pacificador or the Peacemaker, was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885. He was King for only a short period, eleven years scarce, because he died in November 1885, when he was just about to turn twenty-eight, from complications from the tuberculosis he was suffering. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alfonso-XIII, 1914-1918-online - International Encyclopedia of the First World War - Biography of Alfonso XIII, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Alfonso XIII, Alfonso XIII - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In 1902, on his 16th birthday, he assumed full authority as king. He was a monarch from birth as his father, Alfonso XII, had died the previous year. King Alfonso XIII of Spain was the Spanish sovereign from his birth on May 17, 1886, until the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic on April 14, 1931. Attacks, however, won him considerable admiration he restored order to north Africa and his... Königin Isabella II up for this email, you are agreeing to News, offers, and Scotland between and. 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